洛克菲勒家族的百年傳承秘籍

洛克菲勒大廈(洛克菲勒家族資產)

作者:HKT 2022年05月06日 原文連結

自古以來,歷史上有太多的「眼看他起高樓,眼看他宴賓客,眼看他樓塌了」的家族興衰故事。財產糾紛、家族成員內鬥也是很多富豪家族的真實寫照。但鼎鼎大名的洛克菲勒家族,擁有眾多家族成員與資產,卻仍能傳承一百多年,綿延六代而不倒,期間還從未發生過財產風波,他們到底怎麼做到的呢?

一、洛克菲勒家族簡介

洛克菲勒家族,是美國首屈一指的超級財富,靠著石油發家致富,坐擁大名鼎鼎的標準石油公司,全美90%以上的石油市場,曾一度由他們旗下企業掌控。

約翰·洛克菲勒(1839-1937)是洛克菲勒家族的創始人,從最早的美孚石油公司,到後來的大通銀行、芝加哥大學、洛克菲勒大學、耶魯大學、洛克菲勒中心、現代藝術博物館……洛克菲勒家族的身影幾乎貫穿了美國的歷史,無處不在,直到現在,洛克菲勒的後代們仍在續寫著家族的輝煌。

連比爾·蓋茨都曾感嘆過,「我心目中的賺錢英雄只有一個,那就是洛克菲勒」。

二、洛克菲勒家族的發展歷程

第一代

01、建立商業帝國

洛克菲勒家族的第一代傳奇人物,約翰·洛克菲勒,於1839年出生於美國紐約里奇菲爾德鎮的一戶農場裡。她的母親出身於蘇格蘭一個富農家庭,是一位虔誠的基督徒,勤勞、 儉樸,從小就對他灌輸了節儉、勤奮的理念。約翰·洛克菲勒母親的以身作則和正確教導,對約翰之後的人生軌跡產生了深刻的影響。

1855年,16歲的洛克菲勒,高中還沒讀完,便退學去商業打拼,一開始,他還只是某個工廠的記帳員。18歲,他便與克拉克成立了一家貿易代理公司,經營著農產品批發的生意 ,後來發現石油的投資價值,便開始進入石油行業。1870年,洛克菲勒就已經創辦了標準石油公司,1879年,才成立9年的標準石油公司,當時就已經控制了全美90%的煉油產業。

在洛克菲勒石油公司的發展過程中,為了擴大商業版圖,他曾用聯合銀行收貸的方式擊垮了許多小油商,並毫不手軟地以擠壓、削價競爭、斷絕對手必要耗材等方式打倒了眾多競爭對手,並在其瀕臨破產時,再以低價將其吸收合併,如此循環往復,不斷建立起了自己的石油帝國。

最後,洛克菲勒的生意越做越大,以至於他創建了一個史無前例的聯合事業—托拉斯,在這個托拉斯結構下,洛克菲勒合併了41家企業,成功開啟了美國經濟的「壟斷時代」,創建了自己的商業帝國。

02、設立家族辦公室

隨著家族巨額財富的積累,洛克菲勒意識到需要優化他的財富管理模式,為了整體上對家族財富進行集中化管理,1882年,洛克菲勒組織了一些專業人士來幫他打理家族資產和慈善活動,創建了洛克菲勒家族辦公室,被稱為「5600房間」,後來被人們視為是現代家族辦公室的雛形。

通過家族辦公室這個平台,洛克菲勒可以將分布於多家資產管理機構的家族資產匯集到一張家族財務報表中,通過篩選優秀的投資經理,並輔以實施投資績效考核,來實現家族資產的優化配置。到了1908年,他組成了一個正式的委員會來管理這些資產。

此後的一百多年,洛克菲勒家族辦公室為家族的世代成員提供了法律、投資、財務、慈善等一系列的家族事務服務,不僅良好地打理著洛克菲勒家族的財富,更成為這個家族的紐帶,將家族成員緊緊聯繫在一起。後來,越來越成功的洛克菲勒家族辦公室受到了大眾的熟知和認可,到了1979年,洛克菲勒家族辦公室開始為其他富豪家族服務,轉變為一家多家族的辦公室(MFO,The multi-family office)。1980 年,洛克菲勒家族辦公室成為了在美國證券交易委員會註冊的投資顧問公司。

03、開啟慈善版圖

洛克菲勒在少年時期,領到薪水後,就會將其中的一部分捐給教會。在他的石油帝國建成後,他大力加強了在慈善方面的支出,他捐贈過的對象包括了眾多知名機構,例如:芝加哥大學、耶魯大學,哈佛大學,布朗大學等大學;還曾設立普通教育董事會,促進美國教育;成立了洛克菲勒醫學研究所,後變為洛克斐勒大學;1913年,他成立了洛克菲勒基金會,之後還成立了約翰霍普金斯公共衛生學院等先驅頂尖機構。

第二代

01、繼承家業,設立家族信託

1937 年,約翰·洛克菲勒離世,留下了外界估值達 14 億美元的巨額資產。小洛克菲勒繼承家族產業後,他在紐約建立了洛克菲勒中心,為洛克菲勒的商業帝國建立了大本營。小洛克菲勒從小就被教育要以繼承家業並將其發揚光大作為自己的使命,因此,他一邊在探尋如何將家族石油生意永久傳承下去,一邊也在積極地投身慈善事業。

首先,在家族傳承方面,小洛克菲勒選擇了家族信託來保障財富的傳承。1934 年,小洛克菲勒作為委託人,委託大通國民銀行作為受託人設立了家族信託,將他的第一任妻子和 6 個兒女設置為受益人。在信託協議中,他設置了特別條款,規定其家族信託的受益人在 30 歲之前只可以獲取投資收益,不可以動用信託本金;30 歲之後,受益人若需要分配信託本金,必須向信託委員會申請,獲得委員會的准許後才可執行。1952年,小洛克菲勒又為孫輩設立了一系列不可撤銷的信託基金,為家族的第四代也提供了未來經濟保障。

02、發揚慈善事業

小洛克菲勒不僅接管了家族財富,還在大力地開展家族慈善,對家族的慈善事業全身心投入。小洛克菲勒在紐約建立了洛克菲勒中心 ,設法挽救了美國西部山區的許多古老的紅杉 ,並且他熱衷於保護歷史文物和保護環境。他將許多家族財富捐贈出來從事慈善事業,他一生捐出了5億多美元,幫助洛克菲勒家族的慈善進入了一個新紀元。

第三代以後

洛克菲勒家族從第三代起就代代英才輩出,他們繼承了祖父輩的優良血統和商業基因,成為了各個行業的領袖人物。例如:他們有的人掌控著洛克菲勒的經濟帝國,為洛克菲勒家族的發展運籌帷幄;大衛·洛克菲勒成為國際金融家,通過貨幣外交影響世界的經濟格局;尼爾森·洛克菲勒成為美國副總統,直接躋身美國政壇,全面提升了家族的社會影響力;勞倫斯·洛克菲勒成為華爾街的風險投資家,把洛克菲勒家族的財富成功翻了數倍。洛克菲勒家族的傳承架構主要由第一代和第二代構建,故筆者在本文就不再繼續展開闡述其他代際的家族成員。

三、解析洛克菲勒家族的傳承密碼

經過了洛克菲勒家族第一代與第二代的大力發展,老洛克菲勒和小洛克菲勒成功建立起了一個集家族傳承、家族財富管理及家族慈善等一系列家族事務管理的機制:家族辦公室+家族信託+慈善基金會;正是由於這個可以保障家族財富穩定傳承的架構,使得洛克菲勒家族的後人可以安心地管理產業、振興家業,可謂「前人栽樹,後人乘涼」。這樣一個可以持續健康發展的,有利於團結家族成員的家族治理機制,值得國內外家族學習。洛克菲勒家族對財富的管理、對慈善的貢獻和對後代的教育,影響了一代又一代的美國人。

秘籍一:創建家族辦公室

家族辦公室被視為高淨值家族量身定製的私人財富管理平台,家族辦公室可以為家族資產(包括現金、金融產品、家族企業、物業和房地產等)提供一系列完整的、個性化的傳承安排與架構,幫助每一個高淨值家族建立更健康、更科學的財富傳承和管理架構,還可以為家族成員提供投資、法律、稅務、教育、留學等可以提高家族專業度和提升家族生活的服務。

正如洛克菲勒建立的家族辦公室,它的存在極大地促進了家族財富的代際傳承,並成為之後幾代成員的關係紐帶,有效地減少了家族的內部糾紛,確保了家族內部運作的透明度和決策的民主,從而可以在家族產生矛盾,和陷入艱難決策時發揮積極作用。

秘籍二:設立家族信託

家族信託作為一種以家族財富的傳承、管理和保護為目的的傳承架構,早已被眾多境內外高淨值家族採用。家族信託可以幫助高淨值家族實現財富傳承、風險隔離、資產隔離、資產配置、公益慈善、激勵子女等功能,並可以根據委託人的要求靈活設置各種條款,如分配方式、資產配置方式、突發情況時財產的處置等。小洛克菲勒正是深諳家族信託的傳承優勢,所以將家族信託作為傳承工具,為自己的妻子、子女以及孫輩設立了家族信託。值得注意的是,洛克菲勒家族的家族信託不僅有現金、債券等金融產品,還包含了家族股權,這樣的股權型家族信託,有利於家族成員長期掌控家族企業股權,以確保家族股權可以世代不受其他股東和變動因素的影響。

秘籍三:設立家族慈善基金

要想實現家族傳承的永續,除了家族物質財富的傳承,家族精神的傳承也是必不可少的一環。家族慈善基金就是一個可以幫助家族塑造更加完整的家族文化,提升家族成員價值觀,進行更高效慈善輸出的設計。

一個成功的家族慈善基金不僅可以為社會做出貢獻,更可以成為凝聚家族成員的力量,是維持家族財富與家族成員平衡的一種方式。正如洛克菲勒家族的慈善基金會,洛克菲勒的家族成員彼能夠相處如此和諧,也是因為這個慈善基金會把大家團結在一起,幾代成員通過一起參與慈善基金的管理,一起出謀劃策,不斷增強了彼此的聯繫。正如佩姬·洛克菲勒(洛克菲勒家族的第四代成員)在採訪中曾經說的,洛克菲勒家族以慈善基金會為平台訓練家族成員做慈善、再加上家族辦公室的結構設計,這些都使得整個家族可以長久地團結在一起。

四、總結

正如洛克菲勒所說的:「成功的關鍵是名下不擁有任何財產,卻控制一切。」洛克菲勒家族將家族財產的所有權歸集於家族信託,通過保留控制權來掌控財富的分配,鑄就了世代輝煌。其實,家族財富如何順利傳承是每一個家族應該認真思考的問題,沒有哪個家族的財富是順其自然輕鬆傳承的,正如洛克菲勒家族的百年傳承也絕不是偶然,必須未雨綢繆,提前做好傳承規劃。高淨值家族可以根據自己的傳承目標和家族成員構成,合理採用家族信託、家族辦公室、家族慈善基金等財富傳承工具,搭建科學的傳承架構,成為「築百年基業,傳萬世風範」的佳話。

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